At the micro level, the system is designed for redundancy.

“Electric grids are fairly resilient,” Brad Bauch, lead on cybersecurity and privacy at PwC, said in a phone conversation. “When there’s physical damage, such as ice storms, hurricanes, that sort of thing — that tends to wreak a good deal of havoc, but overall they’re fairly resilient and well-engineered, so there’s a lot of redundancy. So if a certain transmission line goes down, then there is, for the most part, some redundancy for the power to be rerouted in another direction.” “The thing that saves the grid, honestly, is that the grid goes down all the time,” Caltagirone said. “The grid is highly reliable because it has to be, because the environment that it’s in is unreliable.”


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